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Zero To One Book Summary In Hindi

Zero to One Book Summary

Zero To One Book Summary In Hindi, Zero To One ka book summary

Business me har cheez ek hi baar hoti hai . Agla Bill Gates operating system nhi banayega. Agle Lary Page ya Sergey Brin search engine nhi banayenge.Aur agla Mark Zuckerberg social network site nhi banayega. Agar aap in logo ko copy kar rhe hai to aap inse kuch nhi seekh rhe.

Ye book Peter Theil ne Blake masters ke saath likhi hai. Peter theil ne Elon musk ke saath paypal bnayi thi jo ki unhone ebay ko 1.5 billion dollars yaani dus hazaar crore rupees me bech di. Aur Peter theil facebook ke sabse pehle investers me se ek hai.

The Challenge Of Future

Agar aap koi nayi cheez bnate hai to aap zero se one ki taraf jaa rhe hai. Agar aap pehle se hi bani hui cheezo ko improve kar rhe hai to aap one se n ki taraf jaa rhe hai.

Jin logo ne baail gaadi se Car banaye, ya car se aeroplane bnaya, ya telephone se mobile bnaya. Ye sab zero se one gaye. Ise hum technology bhi bolte hai. Lekin agar app ek type writer lete hai aur 1000 typewriters duniya me bech dete hai to aap 1 to N jaa rhe ho. Yaani aapne typewriter ki globalization ki.China ek practical example hai globalization ka. Jiska kaam hai developed world Ki har successful cheez ko copy karna.

Peter Theil kehte hai ki aap apne liye successful business o to 1 jaa kar bna sakte ho. Yaani ek unique idea ko le kar  Bhut bade business ke liye ye karna mushkil hai kyunki ek successful business me kuch naya karna unke liye risky hai. Lekin akela insaan bhi 0 se 1 tak nhi jaa sakta. Ye sirf STARTUPS kar sakte hai.

Peter kehte hai startup ek aise logo ka group hai jinhe aap convince kar sakte hai naya future bnane ke liye.  Aur ek startup ki sabse badi strength uski sabse alag soch hoti hai.

Aur aage is audio me hum dekhenge ki successful startup kis foundation ke saath khola jaata hai.

ALL HAPPY COMPANIES ARE DIFFERENT

Agar aapko ek startup kholna hai to aapme conventional thinking se opposite sochne ki kshamta honi chahiye. Ek sawal jo hame hamesha apne aap se puchna hai vo hai “AISE KAUNSI VALUABLE COMPANY HAI JO KOI BHI NHI KHOL RHA.?” Ye sawaal jitna mushkil lag rha hai ye us se kahi zaada mushkil hai. Kyunki ho sakta hai ki aap apne customer ke liye bhut zaada value provide kar rhe ho lekin aap khud us value ko capture na kar paao.

Kyunki value create karna aur value capture karna 2 alag alag baate hai. Udharan ke taur pe, U.S. ke airline business apne passengers ko har saal billions ki value provide karte hai. Lekin 2012 me, jab ek airplane ki ticket lag bhag $178 thi isme se har passenger par airlines ne sirf 37 cents kamaaye. Aur 2012 me airlines ne 160 billion dollars ka business kiya tha ab agar aap ise  google ke saath compare kare to google ne sirf 50 billion ka business kiya tha lekin phir bhi 21% ka profit kamaya, jo ki airline business ke profit margin se 100 times tha. Agar aap saari airline business industries ko mila bhi de to bhi google ne us saal sab se 3 times zaada kamaya tha.

Ye isiliye hai kyunki saare airline business ek dusre se compete karte hai lekin google ek monopoly create karke apne ko sabse alag rakhta hai.

 Ek perfet competition me har company ek sure ki copy karti hai, same products bnati hai. Aur isiliye unhe apne products us keemat par bechne padte hai jo market me bikega. Agar aisi market me profit ho rha ho to nayi firm aayegi aur product ke prices ko aur kam daamo me beech degi. Aur agar bhut saari firm in competitive market me aa jaati hai to vo prices aur kam ho jayenge. Ek perfect competition me koi bhi profit nhi kamaata.

Lekin ek monopoly business mein, monopoly, market me complete control rakhti hai. Kyunki inke paas koi competition nahi hai isiliye ye maximum profit kamaate hai.

Monopoly apne aap ko bachane ke liye hamesha jhooth bolti. Agar koi company apni monopoly ko accept karti hai to iska matlab hai vo market ka maximum profit earn kar rhe hai aur isiliye government agency unpar regulations laga dengi.

Agar hum google ki bat kare to google kabhi bhi apne ko monopoly nhi bolti. Agar google apne ko sirf ek search engine bole to government use monopoly samjhegi. Kyunki 2014 me saari searches ke mukaable google me 68% searches hui hai. Google ke closest competitors Mircrosoft ke Bing me sirf 19% aur Yahoo me 10% searches hui. Itna hi nahi ab google OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY me enter kiya jaa chukka hai as a VERB. Lekin agar google apne aap ko ek advertising company bole to..?

U.S. ki search advertising market hai $17 billion. Aur U.S. ki puri advertising market hai $150 billion.Aur puri duniya ek $495 billion ki advertising market hai. Aur ab google apne ko itne competitive  world me ek chotta sa player bol sakta hai jaha par uska martek share ab sirf 3.4% hai.

Lekin Ek non-monopoly company bhi jhuth bolti hai taaki vo apne ko alag bata sake.  Maan lijiye aap ek restraunt ka business khol rhe hai. To  aap bol sakte hai ki ye “KOI BHI NHI KAR RHA. ” Hum to ek north INDIA me SOUTH INDIAN restraunt hai. Lekin aise jhooth hum apne aap se ya apne investors se bolte hai. Kyunki hum ek competitive market me hai aur ek monopoly nhi ban sakte.

                                  Tag;– Zero To One ka book summary

Lekin sawaal ye hai ki hame apne startup ko ek monopoly ki tarah kholna chahiye ya phir ek competitive environment mein?

Agar ek startup apni market me monopoly create kar sakta hai to ye uske liye sabse zaada fayedemand hai. Agar hum google ki baat kare to use competition ki koi chinta nhi hai. Vo apne workers ki chinta kar sakta hai , apne products ko improve kar sakta hai, Innovation ar sakta hai aur puri duniyame impact daal sakta hai. Lekin aisa karna competitive market me bilkul possible nhi hai.

The Ideology Of Competition 

Ek monopoly me naye products bante hai jo ki uske owner ko lagataar profit kama kar dete hai. Jabki competition me profit bhut hi kam hota hai jaha par company ke owners ko apna business sustain karne ke liye bhi struggle karna padta hai.

Hum jitna ek dusre se compete karenge  hume utna hi nuksaan hoga. Lekin haraini ki baat ye hai ki hamara education system bhi isi theory par chalta hai. Marks ek student ko dusre student ke saath compete karne ke liye majboor karte hai. Hum har student ko same cheez padhate hai. Jo student is conventional system me aage bad jaata hai hum use society me respect dete hai. Lekin yehi student phir se apne career me ek dusre ke saath compete karne lag jaate hai. Aur bhaut hi kam log apni life me kuch meaning ful kar paate hai.

Zero To One ka book summary

Peter batate hai ki unhone apne career ki shurvaat bhi kuch isi tareeke se kari thi. Vo padne me bhut tez the. Itne tez ki 8th grade me hi unke dost ne unhe bol diya tha ki chaar saal ke baad teri admission STANFORD me ho jaayegi. Aur aisa hi hua unhone Stanford law school me admission le li aur waha par bhi baaki students ke saath compete karne lag gaye.

Aur unka ab final goal Supreme court me jaana reh gaya tha. Vo is last competition me reh gaye. Lekin peter bolte hai ki agar mein vo last battle jeet jata to aaj mein aur logo ke liye unki business deals bna rha hota.

Lein jab unhone apni company paypal start kari to vo logo ke saath compete nhi karna chahte the. Balki kuch different karna chahte the, zero to one janna chahte the. Unka aur unki team ka sapna tha ki vo paiso ko emails ke through transfer karvaaye. 1999 me paise ek jagah se dusri jagah transfer karna ek bhaut badi problem thi. Aur vo sab isko solve karna chahte the. Aur unhone isi mentality ki vajah se $1.5 billion dollar ki company bhi bna di.

LAST MOVER ADVANTAGE

Jo competition se bachta hai vo hi monopoly create kar sakta hai. Agar aap New York times ko twitter ke saath compare karoge to in dono ke paas kayi hazaar employee hai, aur ye dono ka main maksad hai logo tak news pahunchana. Lekin jab 2013 me Twitter public hua to iski keemat $24 billion lagayi jaa rhi thi, joki New York Times se 12 times zaada thi. 2012 me  New York Times ne $133 million dollars kamaye the jabki twitter loss me tha.

Ye ek bevkoofi lag sakti hai aur hum puch sakte hai ki asa kyu hua.  To Iska jawaab hai cash flow.  Kisi bhi company ki aaj ki kimat is baat par depend karti hai ki vo kal kitne paise kamaayegi.

Aapne logo ko ye kehte hue to zarur suna hoga ki “FIRST MOVER KO BHUT ADVATAGE HOTA HAI” ,”agar aap sabse pehle business kholo to aap market ka ek bada share le sakte ho”. Lekin Peter bolte hai ki LAST MOVER ADVANTAGE AUR BHI BADA HAI. Aap baaki sabke products ko dekh k ek aisa product bnao jo monopoly create kar de aur aapko copy karna bhaut mushkil ho jaaye. Tab hi aap ek entry barrier create kar sakte ho aur ek MONOPOLY KA MAZZA UTHA SAKTE HO.

Magar ab sawaal ye aata hai ki monopoly business me kya-kya khaas baate hoti hai?

 Monopoly business me ye chaar cheeze dekhi ja sakti hai:-

1)      Proprietary technology:- Agar aap aisa product bna dete hai jise copy karna dusre ke liye bhaut mishkil ho jaaye to aap ek monopoly create kar sakte hai.  Iske liye aapko kam se kam existing technology ko 10 guna improve karna hoga.

Isse kam improvement ek chotti improvement hi maani jayegi aur easily copy bhi ki jaa sakti hai.  Jab 1995 me amazon launch hua tha tab vo duniya ka sanbe bada bookstore mana jaata tha.  Kyunki agar aap use kisi aur book store ke saath compare kare to zaada se zaada vo 1 lakh different books apne pass rakh sakta tha. Lekin amazon sirf supplier se books ki list hi leta tha aur book sirf tabhi khareedta tha jab customer se order milta. Ye itna effective tha ki  Barnes and noble ne amazon ki IPO ke teen din pehle amazon par case kar diya aur kaha “ki amazon apne ko ek book store kehta hai lekin vo ek book broker hai”.

2)      Network effects:- Network effect aapke product ko customer ke liye bhut usefull bna deta hai. Agar aapka koi bhi friend facebook par na ho to bhut kam chances hai ki aap bhi facebook ko use karenge. Aur kyunki aaj aapka har friend facebook use karta hai to aapko bhi facebook hi use karna padega.Agar aap koi aur social site use karte hai to aapke dost aapko pagal samjhenge.

3)      Economies of scale:- Ek bhut hi strong monopoly business create kiya jaa sata hai agar aap apne busiess ko scale kar sake. Service business ko scale karna bhut mushkil hai. Maan lijiye ki aap yoga classes dete hai to aap limited customers ko hi serve kar payenge chahe aap zaada yoga instructers ko hire bhi kar le. Apne zaada institutes bhi khol le.  Software start-ups ko ye advantage hai ki vo apna business bht jaldi scale kar sakte hai. Kyunki software ki ek aur copy bnane aur use bechne le liye almost zero cost lagegi.

4)      Branding:-Ek strong famous brand create karna aapko monopoly create karne me madat kar sakta hai. Apple bhut hi carefully apne har product ke liye material khreedta hai chahe vo iphone ho ya ipad. Inke products customers ko itne acha user experience deta hai ki log maan ke chalet hai ki apple Brand ka har product acha hi Hoga.

Ab sawaal ye aata hai ki kya monopoly business  ko create karne ka koi process hai.

Brand,scale,technology aur network effects ke ellava jab bhi aap startup khole to market ko analyze karke khole aur phir vaha se apna business expand karna shuru kare.

Step one:-Chotte se shuru karo aur phir monopoly bna lo.

Aapko hamesha business chotti market se shuru karna hai. Karan simple hai, ek chotti market ko kabu karna aur usme monopoly create karna aasan hai. Lekin badi market me ye sab karna mushkil hai kyu ki koi bhi bada player aapko apni existing market me ye nhi karne dega. Jab peter theil ne paypal ka startup start kiya tha to har market me e-wallet ka concept lane ke bajaye ebay ke existing sellers ko apna product offer kiya. Kyunki ye log paise cheque se pay karte the jiski processing ke liye bhut time lag jaata tha. Aur kyunki ye market bade players ke liye chotti thi, isiliye is market me koi dhyaan bhi nhi de rha tha.  Aur teen mahine ke andar paypal ne 25% logo ko apna customer bna liya tha.

Step two :- Apne business ko scale karna.

 Jaise hi aap chotti market ko dominate kar do. Phir aap dheere dheere dusri related markets ko dominate kar sakte ho. Agar hum amazon ki baat kare to Jeff Bezos, amazon ke founder ne, amazon me sirf books bechana start kiya tha. Jaha par ek aam dukaandar kam bikne vaali kitaab apni dukano me nhi rakhte the. Amazon hi puri duniya me ek aisa source ban gaya tha jaha par duniya ki har keetab mil sakti thi. Aur aisa isiliye tha kyunki amazon apni kitaabe nhi bechta tha balki baaki dukaandaro ke kitabo ko apni site par dikhata tha. Aur jab customer order dete tabhi vo kitaab bechta.

Jab amazon ne is market me monopoly bna li uske baad usne softwares, CD, DVD bechna bhi start kar diya. Aur aise hi dheere dheere aur categories ko apni website me jodta gaya. Isiliye aaj vo duniya ka sabse bda online store hai aur Jeff bezoz duniya ke sabse ameer aadmi.

Step 3:- Shuru me kabhi bhi kisi bade business ko DISRUPT naa kare.

Startups ke paas itni funding nhi hoti ki vo ek badi company ko challenge karke use compete kar sake. Agar aap ye galti karte ho to bhut hi jald aap business se bahar ho jaaoge.

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 SECRETS

Agar hum sochte hai ki hum duniya ko samajhte hai aur hume sab pata hai to hum zero se one tak nhi jaa sakte. Peter kehte hai ki duniya me 3 tareke ke ideas hai.

Pehle conventional, jo sabko pata hai aur sab un baato ko maante hai. Agar aap in ideas pe kaam karoge to aap ek monopoly business nhi bna paooge. Jaise ki agar aap 18th century me hote to aap bol sakte the ki mujhe duniya ki khoj karni hai mujhe dekhna hai ki samundra ke us paar kya hai. Aur shayad aapko koi naya desh mil jaata. Lekin agar aaj aap is khoj pe nikalte ho to aapko kuch naya nhi milega. Kyunki pura earth plot ho chukka hai.

Dusre ideas hai jinhe hum mysteries bolte hai aur unhe solve karna bhaut hi mushkil hai. Jaise ki scientist universe ko samjhaane ke liye String theory ka istamaal kar rhe hai. Lekin hum is par koi experiment nhi kar sakte aur ise solve karna almost impossible hai. Aise ideas par bhi kaam karna bevkoofi hai.

Teesre ideas aate hai jo conventional ideas aur mysteries ke beech ke ideas hai. Inhe author SECRETS bolte hai. Secrets vo idea hai jo common logo ko itni jaldi samajh nhi aate lekin unhe samajhna impossible bhi nhi hai. Agar ham eek zero to one business banana hai to hume SECRETS DHUNDNE HONGE.

LEKIN AB SAWAAL YE AATA HAI KI LOG SECRETS KO KYU NHI DHUDTE?

Pehla karaan hai hamari incremantalism mentality jo bachpan se hi program ki hui hai. Agar aap apne school me kuch naya karte hai, kuch syllabus se bahar karte hai to aapko uska koi benefit nhi milta lekin agar aap vohi karte hai jo syllabus me hai to aapko credit diya jaata hai taareef hoti hai. In karano ki vajah se log aage bhi apni life me kuch naya nhi dekhte.

Dusra aata hai risk aversion. Log galat hone se darte hai. Kyunki secrets abhi aam janta ne apnaye nhi hai isiliye unpe kaam karne se log darte hai. Agar aap risk lene se darte hai to aap kabhi secrets nhi dhund paayenge.

Teesra aata hai complacency.Tez dimaag vale log jab college join karte hai to uhe bola jaata hai Ki “aap is prestigious college me aa chuke hai  ab aapki life set hai”. Aur is vajah se jo log secrets ko dhund sakte the vo secret ko kabhi dhundne ki koshish hi nhi karte.

Chautha aata hai flatnessness. Hum log apne se puchte hai ki agar secrets hote to baaki log jo humse zaada intelligent hai, mehanti hai, vo hi in secrets ko kyu nhi dhund lete. Aur unpar kaam karne lag jaate.  Is doubt ki vajah se log secrets ko dhundne ki koshish bhi nhi karte.

SECRETS KO KAISE DHUNDE

Agar aap ek unique company kholna chahtehai to hamesha apne se do sawaal puchne zaroori hai.

1) Nature  aapko kya secrets nhi bata rhi?

2) Log aapko kya secrets nhi bata rhe??

Peter batate hai ki physics ke PhD’s ke saath kaam karna bhaut mushkil hai. Kyunki ye log nature ke saare basic principles jaante hai. Isiliye ye sochte hai ki inhe sab kuch pata hai. Lekin kya jise electromagnetic theory pata hai kya vo ek acha marriage counsellor bhi hoga? Vaise hi jise gravity ke bare me knowledge hai kya vo acha businessman bhi hoga?

Paypal ke liye Peter ne ek baar physics PhD ka interview liya.  Interview ke beech me usne Peter ko kaha “RUKO, MUJHE PATA HAI TUM MUJHSE KYA PUCHNE WALE HO”. Aur use actual me vo cheez nhi pata thi.  Aur Peter ne use usi waqt reject kar diya.

Aap secrets waha par dhundo jaha par unhe koi bhi nhi dhund rha.

Zaada tar log secrets ko wahi dhundte hai jo unhe school/colleges me padhaya jaata hai.  Lekin aap apne se pucho “Aise kaunsi fields hai jo matter karti hai lekin college ya schools me padhai nhi jaati?”.

For example, agar hum physics me secrets dhunde, to physics har college me padhai jaati hai is field me aapko secret dhundne me mushkil hogi. Lekin agar aap physics ke opposite subject astrology ko dekho to ye subject logo ko utni value nhi provide kar sakta. Lekin agar hum nutrition ko dekhe to, Nutriton sabhi ke liye matter karta hai. Aut top scientists physics jaise subject chose karte hai na ki nutrition. Hume aaj bhi nutrition me vohi pata hai jo 30-40 saal pehle pata tha.

Aise subjects me aapko secrets milne ki sumbhavana zaada ho jaati hai.

Saat Sawaal

Peter kehte hai ki aap apne startup ke success ke chances ko improve kar sakte hai in saat sawaalo ka jawaab de ke.

1.      The Engineering Question:- Kya aap market me aisa product laa sakte ho jo existing products se 10X acha hai?

2.      The Timing question:- Kya ye sahi time hai is tarah ka business banana ke liye?

3.      The monopoly question:-Kya aap chotti market ke bade share se start kar rhe ho?

4.      The people question:- Kya aapke paas sahi team hai?

5.      The distribution question:-Kya aapke paas apne product ko banana ke saath saath use bechne ka tareeka bhi maloom hai?

6.      The Durability question:-Kya aapapna business 10-20 saalo baad bhi kar rhe honge?

7.      The secret question:- Kya aap aise opportunity dhoond chuke ho jo baaki miss kar rhe hai?

Jab tak aapke paas in sawaalo me se kam se kam 5 ya 6 sawaalo ka jawaab “HAA” nhi hai. Tab tak aapka business me bhaut dikate aaengi.

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